NCERT Solutions for Class 10th Ch 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy

 NCERT Solutions for Class 10th Chapter 2 (S.St) Sectors of the Indian Economy 

Exercises, Page - 35

1. Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:
(i) Employment in the service sector__________increased to the same extent as production. (has/has not)
(ii) Workers in the___________sector do not produce goods. (teritary/agricultural)
(iii) Most of the workers in the___________sector enjoy job security.(organised/unorganised)
(iv) A__________proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (large/small)
(v) Cotton is a _________ product and cloth is a __________product. (natural/manufactured)
(vi) The activities in Primary, secondary and tertiary sectors are __________ (independent/interdependent]
(i) has not
(ii) tertiary
(iii) organised
(iv) large
(v) natural, manufactured
(vi) interdependent

2. Choose the most appropriate answer.

(a) The sectors are classified into public and private sector on the basis of:
      (i) employment conditions
     (ii) the nature of economic activity
    (iii) ownership of enterprises
    (iv) number of workers employed in the enterprise
(iii) ownership of enterprises

(b) Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in_________sector.
      (i) Primary
     (ii) Secondary
    (iii) tertiary
    (iv) information technology
(i) primary

(c) GDP is the total value of ___________ produced during a particular year.
      (i) all goods and services
     (ii) all final goods and services
    (iii) all intermediate goods and services
    (iv) all intermediate and final goods and services
(ii) all final goods and services

(d) In terms of GDP the share of tertiary sector in 2013-14 is between __________per cent.
      (i) 20 to 30
     (ii) 30 to 40
    (iii) 50 to 60
    (iv) 60 to 70
(iii) 50 to 60

3. Match the following:
Sectors of the Indian Economy NCERT Solution

  1. Unirrigated land - (d) Construction of canals by the government
  2. Low Prices of Crops - (b) Cooperative marketing socities
  3. Debt burden - (e) Banks to provide credit with low interest
  4. No job in the off season - (a) Setting up agro-based mills
  5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest - (c) Procurement of foodgrains by government
4. Find the odd one out and say why.
    (i) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter
   (ii) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer
  (iii) Postman, cobbler, soldier, Police constable
  (iv) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, Jet Airways, All India Radio
(i) Potter, because it comes in primary sector.
(ii) Vegetable vendor, because other three are rendering their services.
(iii) Cobbler, because he is engaged in primary activity.
(iv) SAHARA Air lines, because it is in private sector.

5. A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following.
NCERT Solution for Social Science - Sectors of the Indian Economy

Complete the table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganised sector in this city ?
Sectors of the Indian Economy Class 10 Ch 2 Sectors Of The Indian Economy

Seventy per cent workers in the unorganised sector.

6. Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful ? Explain how.
Primary Activity - Production of wheat, vegetable, milk, marble and coal are some examples of primary activites.
Secondary Activity - Paper from wood, bread from wheat and nails and steel bars made from iron are the examples of secondary activities.
Tertiary Activity - Reatil stores, wholesale shops, and banks are some of its examples.
The above classification of economic activities is useful because due to this we come to know about the overall development of every sector.

7. For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP ? Could there be other issues which should be examined ? Discuss.
One should focus on employment and GDP for each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter because employment and GDP are the key issues of development. These two issues are today conflicting each other. For example if we take care of employment the objectives of GDP growth remains far behind. But these could be other issues like social welfare, healthy living conditions, removal of inequalities and poverty should also be examined.

8. Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them ? Explain your choice.
Following is the list of all kinds of work that adults doing around me for a living.
  • Agricultural works
  • Wage works
  • Dairy
  • Tailoring
  • Cobbler
  • Hair dressing
  • Shopkeeper
  • Teachers
  • Doctors
  • Adults going to offices.
These kind of works can be classified into primary, secondary and tertiary activities. Agricutural works, dairy comes under primary activity. Wage works, tailoring, cobbler, hair dressing come under secondary activities. While shopkeepers, teachers and doctors come in the category of tertiary activities.
I want to become a doctor.

9. How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors ? Illustrate with a few examples.
The tertiary sector is different from the primary and secondary sectors. These are activities that help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors. These activities, by themselves, do not produce a good but they are an aid or a support for the production process. For example, goods that are produce in the primary or secondary sector would need to be transported by trucks, or trains and then sold in wholesale and retail shops.

10. What do you understand by disguised unemployment ? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.
Disguised unemployment is the situation of under employment, where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential. This kind of under employment is hidden in contrast to someone who does not have a job and is clearly visible as unemployed.
For example in rural areas there are more people in agriculture that is necessary. So, even if we move a few people out, production will not be affected.
In urban areas there are thousands of casual workers in the service sector who search for daily employment where they may spend the whole day but earn very little.

11. Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemploymetn.
Open unemployment is a situation in which a person who is able and willing to work at existing wage rate cannot get work. This kind of unemployment exists due to lack of resources.
On the other hand disguised unemployment is a situation in which more people are engaged in an activity than the required one. The absence of alternative employment opportunities leads to this situation. Open unemployment exists among the educated unemployed. Generally this type of unemployment can be seen in the urban areas. On the other hand disguised unemployment exists generally in the agricultural sector and mostly among the rural people.

12. "Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy." Do you agree ? Give reasons in support of your answer.
I agree with statement that tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy because from the year 1973 to 2003 the production in the tertiary sector rose by 11 times but employment rose by less than three times. As a result more than half of the workers in the country are working in the primary sector mainly in agriculture. No doubt tertiary sector is playing a significant role in GDP growth. But it is only increasing inequalities among the people. Thus real development is that one which removes the chronical problems like unemployment and poverty.

13. Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these ?
Yes, we are agreed with this statement that service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. At one end there are a limited number of services that employ highly skilled and educated workers. At the other end, there are very large number of workers engaged in services such as small shopkeepers, repair persons, transport persons, etc. This type of people hardly manage to earn their both ends meet and yet they perform these services because no alternative opportunities for work are available to them. Therefore only a part of this sector is growing importance in providing employment to the people.

14. Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. Do you agree with this view ? Give reason in support of your answer.
The organised sector offers jobs that are the most sought-after. But the employment opportunities in the organised sector have been expanding very slowly. It is also common to find many organised sector enterprises in the unorganised sector. They adopt such strategies to evade taxes and refuse to follow laws that protect laboures. As a result, a large number of workers are forced to enter the same. In the unorganised sector workers land up in low paid jobs; they are often exploited and not paid a fair wage. Their earning are low and not regular. Besides getting the irregular and low paid work, these workers also face social discrimination.

15. How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions ?
The activities are classified in the economy on the basis of nature of activity. Commonly we can divide the economic activities into organised and unorganised sectors. Organised sector includes those enterprise or place of work where the terms of employment are regular. Activities of organised sector are registered by the government and one have to follow its rules and regulations which are given in various laws. On the other hand activities of unorganised sector are low paid and often not regular, employment is not secure and people can be asked to leave without any reason.

16. Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors.
Organised sector covers those places of work where the terms of employment are regular. Worker in the organised sector enjoy security of employment. They are expected to work only a fixed number of hours. They also get several other benefits from the employers. They get paid leave, payment during holidays, provident fund, gratutity etc. In contrast, the unorganised sector is characterised by small and scattered units which are largely outside the control of the government. Jobs here are low-paid and often not regular. There is not extra benefit.

17. Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005.
The objective of the NREGA 2005 is to enhance the livelihood security of the people in rural areas by generating wage employment through works that develop the infrastructure base of that area. The choice of work suggested addresses the cause of chronic poverty like drough, deforestation, and soil erosion. Under NREGA, 2005, all those who are able to and are in need of work have been guranteed 100 days of employment in a year by the government. If the government fails in its duty to provide employment, it will give unemployment allowances to the people.

18. Using examples from your area compare and contrast that activities and functions of private and public sector.
The private sector enterprise is owned and controlled by individuals or a group of individuals with the objective of profit-making. All retail and wholesale shops, farms, companies, etc. are the examples of private sector. On the other hand, public sector enterprises are controlled and owned by the government with the aim of social welfare in general. Indian Railways, Indian Oil Corporation and Delhi Transport Corporation are some examples of public sector enterprises.

19. Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.
Sectors of the Indian Economy Class 10 Ch 2 Social Science Economics Sectors Of The Indian Economy

Economics Class 10 Social Science Ch 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy

In my area Indian Railway is making profit as it is well managed while the public sector badly managed organisation is Handloom and Handicrafts corporation. In the private sector Maruti Udyog is doing well while Milk Co-operative society is making losses.

20. Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain and why the government has taken them up.
Construction of roads, bridges railways, harbours, generating electricity, provoding irrigation through dam, subsidies, pensions, scholarships, providing health and education etc. are some examples of public sector activities. The government has taken them up because of the welfare motive. As the private sector exploits the people with profit motive, it increases the disparities in the distribution of income and wealth. Thus for equitable distribution of income and welath and for growth with justice the government has taken public sector activities. Without the development of the poor people a country like India can not take the path of progress. So the government monitors the public sector activities.

21. Explain how public sector contributes to economic development of a nation.
Public sector contributes to economic development of a nation by providing several things to the society at a reasonable cost which the private sector cannot provide. Public sector spends large sums of money on construction of roads, bridges, railways, harbours, generating electricity, providing irrigation through dams etc. which is beyond the capacity of the private sector. It also encourages private sector enterprise, farmers and consumers through subsidies and support prices. It also contributes to economic development of a nation by providing education and health facilities to a general public.

22. The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues :
wages, safety and health. Explain with examples.
The workers in an unorganised sector need protection and on the issues like wages, safety and health. For example small and scattered units of unorganised sector are largely outside the control of the government. There are rules and regulations but these are not followed. Jobs here are low paid and often not regular. There is no provision for overtime, paid leave, holidays, leave due to stickness etc. Employment is not secure. People can be asked to leave without any reason. A lot also depends on the whims of the employer. Thus protection and support to the unorganised sector workers is necessary on the issues like wages, safety and healthy for both economic and social development.

23. A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city 11,00,000 worked in the unorganised sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997-98) was Rs. 60,000 million. Out of this Rs. 32,000 million was generated in the organised sector. Present this data as a table. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city ?
No. of workers in different sectors in Ahmedabad city and their Income during the year 1997-98
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Ch 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy

For generating more employment in the city unorganised sector can further play a vital role as the growth of employment opportunities in the organised sector is very slow. Thus by providing some protection and support to unorganised sector more employment in the city can be generated.

24. The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors :
Ch 2 Class 10 Social Science Sectors of the Indian Economy
(i) Calculate the share of the three sectors in GDP for 2000 and 2013.
(ii) Show the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter.
(iii) What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph ?
(i) In 2000, Primary sector = 22.22%, Secondary sector = 20.73%, tertiary sector = 57.04% and In 2013, primary sector = 13.94%, Secondary sector = 18.70%, tertiary sector = 67.36%

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Economics Ch 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy

(iii) We can draw the conclusion that share of the tertiary sector in the GDP has increased by 10%, while that of the primary sector has almost halved. The secondary sector has grown by about 2% in the last 13 years.
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